Watch one of these videos on why we cite from the University of North Carolina and North Carolina State University.
Why We Cite
Citation: A (very) Brief Introduction
To attribute words and ideas to their original source – simply giving credit where credit is due
To provide your readers with a kind of “map”of what you have been reading – to help your readers understand what has influenced your thinking
To add weight and credibility to your paper –to demonstrate that you are engaged in the relevant research material
To provide an easy way for your readers to get access to the source material
To situate yourself in an academic community with shared conventions
To avoid plagiarism
Don't depend on underlining and highlighting in the actual book or article. Keeping your own separate notes, either on paper, in MS Word or in the Cloud, is the best way to organize your thoughts.
Facts, people, statistics etc., to better understand your topic
Points that prove or disprove your own argument
Remember you can bring up counter arguments in your paper and disprove them with other sources
Record quotations or ideas that you might be able to use or directly reference in your paper
You can color code or draw arrows etc., to link ideas and arguments
Use your own words. You can choose the most important ideas and write them down as labels or headings. Then fill in with a few sub-points that explain or exemplify
Only write down exact quotes only when the ideas are memorably phrased or well written. You can use them as actual quotations in your essay
There is no method of note-taking that guarantees you will not have to return at some point to the original source.
For this reason be sure to record along with your notes the:
Page number or exact location of the information you may use in your paper
This will save you time if you have to return to the passage again later.
Example of a note:
- helpful insight on income inequality, p. 32, 3rd par., Alan Thompson,Canadian Social Justice, 2004.
1. Read the following instructions from OWL Purdue on in-text citation basics.
Amanda Jones, The study habits of undergrad students 1998 Harper Collins
"Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time"
2. In the box below, write an in-text direct quote in APA style.
APA Style from Purdue University Online Writing Lab (OWL)
APA Style Formatting from Student Learning Support (Ryerson University)
APA Style Simplified (E-Book)
APA FAQ (APA Style Blog)
The Library has multiple copies of the Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th edition). It is available at the following locations:
The call number is: BF76.7 .P82 2010
Concise Rules of APA Style, is the official short and easy-to-use version and is also available for 2 hour loans.