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History, Africa

An overview of resource available through the Ryerson University Library for the study of the History of Africa. It covers the modern period (Colonial and Post-Colonial) as well as the pre-colonial period prior to 1850.

Why Cite

When writing a research paper you will use a wide variety of resources.  You are required to cite your sources for two main reasons:

  1. To give credit to the creator of the original idea.  By citing you will avoid any charges of plagiarism.
  2. To enable readers of your paper to be able to find the resources you have used and consult them to read further on the topic.

For more information, check Why We Cite and How to Avoid Plagiarism.

Chicago Manual of Style

Style and Formatting Guides""

Chicago Manual of Style 17th Edition from Purdue University Online Writing Lab (OWL)

Chicago Basic Style Guide from Student Learning Support (Ryerson University)

Official Versions 

Chicago Manual of Style. 17th Edition
10th floor. Call number: Z253 U69 2017 (1 week loan)

Chicago Manual of Style, 16th Edition 
10th floor, Call number:  Z253 .U69 2010

Why we Cite

Information has Value!

Watch one of these create videos why we cite from  the University of North Carolina and North Carolina State University 

Why We Cite

From The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Citation: A (very) Brief Introduction  

From North Carolina State University

Image of Video for Why we Cite - click on image Citation Video from NCSU


Here's a break down of why we cite?

  • To attribute words and ideas to their original source – simply giving credit where credit is due.

  • To provide your readers with a kind of “map”of what you have been reading – to help your readers understand what has influenced your thinking.

  • To add weight and credibility to your paper –to demonstrate that you are engaged in the relevant research material

  • To provide an easy way for your readers to get access to the source material.

  • To situate yourself in an academic community with shared conventions.

  • To avoid plagiarism.

Citation Management

Citing is an important part of the research process; however, it can be frustrating and time consuming.  There are various tools that you can use to help you to manage your research and cite properly.  They will let you:

  • gather citations from online resources 
  • organize and edit your citations
  • create in-text citations and bibliographies
  • collaborate and share your research with others 

Popular citation managers include Mendeley, Zotero, and Endnote.

View the RULA guide to Mendeley

View the RULA guide to Zotero