American Psychological Association (APA) citation style is widely used in business and the social sciences. This guide gives APA citation style examples for selected business research sources with a focus on online resources.
When writing a research paper you will use a wide variety of resources. You are required to cite your sources for two main reasons:
For more information, check Why We Cite and How to Avoid Plagiarism.
Gale Cengage Learning. (n.d.). Electronic Arts Inc. [company profile]. Business Insights: Global. Retrieved July 5, 2016.
Clarke, T. (2020, January 28). Canadian industrial outlook: Wood products. Conference Board of Canada e-library. Retrieved February 14, 2020.
Economist Intelligence Unit. (n.d.). Country report: Canada. Economist Intelligence Unit. Retrieved February 13, 2020.
FactSet Research Systems Inc. (2020). Factiva company report Adidas AG. Dow Jones Factiva. Retrieved January 1, 2020.
LexisNexis. (2019, November 18). Electronic Arts Inc. [dossier]. Nexis Uni. Retrieved February 14, 2020.
Mergent. (n.d.). Amazon.com Inc. [company report]. Mergent Online. Retrieved February 14, 2020.
Zmijak, A. (2020, January). Innovations in travel - Canada. Mintel. Retrieved February 13, 2020.
Note: Mintel reports usually list an analyst (author)’s name. If an author’s name is listed, then it must be included in the citation.
Euromonitor International. (2019, March). Sportswear in Canada. Passport. Retrieved February 15, 2020.
Sayler, B. (2018, March). IBISWorld industry report 72221bCA: Coffee & snack shops in Canada. IBISWorld. Retrieved September 12, 2019.
Note: IBISWorld reports usually list an author’s name. If an author’s name is listed, then it must be included in the citation.
Oloruntoba, A., Sapun, P., & Witte, M. (2019, August). Sports cars report 2019: Statista mobility market outlook. Statista. Retrieved February 7, 2020.
People's Dispensary for Sick Animals. (2013, December). Exercises pet rabbits do on a daily basis in the United Kingdom in 2011 and 2013. Statista. Retrieved October 19, 2020.
Note: Statista documents often list an author’s name or other organization as author. Reports provide the source/analyst(s) at the very end of the PDF document. Graphs provide source information on the lower right of the screen. If no author is listed, list Statista as the author. Otherwise list the other organization or individual author.
Microsoft Corp. (2019, October 16). Annual report 2019. https://www.microsoft.com/investor/reports/ar19/index.html
Note: if the author and site name are the same (e.g., Microsoft), do not include the site name from the citation.
HSBC. (2020, February 24). HSBC Bank Canada: Annual report and accounts 2019. SEDAR. https://www.sedar.com/