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Citation Guide (APA and other Styles)

APA Style

The APA Style Guide does not provide guidance for citing Indigenous Elders and Knowledge Keepers. In the spirit of reconciliation, the following guidance has been developed by Norquest College Library.

The citation format for the reference list follows the following format:

Last name, First initial., Nation/Community. Treaty Territory if applicable. Where they live if applicable. Topic/subject of communication if applicable. personal communication. Month Date, Year.

For example:

Cardinal, D., Goodfish Lake Cree Nation. Treaty 6. Lives in Edmonton. Oral teaching. personal communication. April 4, 2004.

In text citations

Unlike other personal communications, Elders and Knowledge Keepers should be cited in-text and in the reference list. The in-text citation format should follow the same guidelines as noted in the paraphrase and direct quote tabs: 

Delores Cardinal described the nature of the... (2004).

OR

The nature of the place was... (Cardinal, 2004).

Note: If you would like to approach an Elder or Knowledge Keeper for teachings, remember to follow protocol or if you are unsure what their protocol is, please ask them ahead of time.

Unlike other personal communications, Elders and Knowledge Keepers should be cited in-text and in the reference list. The in-text citation format can be found under the In-Text Citation tab. The 'p' in personal communication is lower-case as the official APA style which does not capitalize it.

Source: NorQuest College Indigenous Elders and Knowledge Keepers

MLA Style

The MLA Style Guide does not provide guidance for citing Indigenous Elders and Knowledge Keepers. In the spirit of reconciliation, the following guidance has been developed by Norquest College Library.

Unlike most other personal communications, Elders and Knowledge Keepers should be cited in-text and in the reference list.

The citation format for the reference list follows the following format:

Last name, First name., Nation/Community. Treaty Territory if applicable. City/Community they live in if applicable. Topic/subject of communication if applicable. Date Month Year. 

Cardinal, Delores., Goodfish Lake Cree Nation. Treaty 6. Lives in Edmonton. Oral teaching. 4 April 2004. 

The in-text citation format should be formatted as:

Delores Cardinal described the nature of the...

OR

The nature of the place was... (Cardinal).

Note: If you would like to approach an Elder or Knowledge Keeper for teachings, remember to follow protocol or if you are unsure what their protocol is, please ask them ahead of time.

Source: http://libguides.norquest.ca/MLA8/intextcitations#s-lib-ctab-10510622-5