Skip to main content

Shared Content

This guide contains boxes of content that can be re-used in other guides.

Why Cite

When writing a research paper you will use a wide variety of resources.  You are required to cite your sources for two main reasons:

  1. To give credit to the creator of the original idea.  By citing you will avoid any charges of plagiarism.
  2. To enable readers of your paper to be able to find the resources you have used and consult them to read further on the topic.

For more information, check Why We Cite and How to Avoid Plagiarism.

APA Style

*All links and sources reflect APA 7th edition (2019) unless noted.

Style and Formatting Help

APA Style from Purdue University Online Writing Lab (OWL) *Updated for APA 7th edition (2019)

APA Style Formatting from Student Learning Support (Ryerson University) *APA 6th edition (last updated in 2016)

APA FAQ *Updated for APA 7th edition (2019)

Quick Help

Citing sources in the body of your essay

In-Text Citations (Authors)
In-Text Citations (Websites)

Creating a Reference List/Bibliography

Books

Electronic sources (Online Articles, E-books, Websites, YouTube etc)

APA in your Essay

What an APA paper looks like (OWL Purdue)

APA Style Guide (Official Copy)

The Library has multiple copies of the Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (7th edition). It is available at the following locations:

  • Reserve (2nd floor Check-out desk). One copy is available to be checked out for 2 hours.
  • 5th floor. One copy is available for regular loan period.

The call number is: BF76.7 .P82 2020

 

MLA Style

MLA Style is commonly used in the arts, literature and the humanities.

Style and Formatting Help

MLA Formatting and Style Guide from Purdue University Online Writing Lab (OWL)

MLA Style Formatting from Ryerson University Student Learning Support 

Official MLA Style Guide  

MLA Handbook

Chicago Manual of Style

Style and Formatting Guides""

Chicago Manual of Style 17th Edition from Purdue University Online Writing Lab (OWL)

Chicago Basic Style Guide from Student Learning Support (Ryerson University)

Official Versions 

Chicago Manual of Style. 17th Edition
10th floor. Call number: Z253 U69 2017 (1 week loan)

Chicago Manual of Style, 16th Edition 
10th floor, Call number:  Z253 .U69 2010

Citation Managers

What's the best citation management software for me?

So how do you pick the best citation management software for you? There are many factors to consider. For example, if you are an undergraduate student, you might be looking for the fastest and easiest option—something with a short learning curve, which lets you grab citations and produce bibliographies in a snap. Oh, and let's not forget: it needs to be free or cheap.

If you're a graduate student or a faculty member, you might have different considerations: the software needs to work well with the databases you use frequently, it must be able to organize and filter a large number of citations, and it should be able to produce a bibliography in the primary style used in your discipline. If you're working on a research team, you'll also want to make sure the software allows you to collaborate with your colleagues smoothly.

U of T has created this guide comparison chart below to help you examine the different features available and figure out the best option for you.  We've adapted it slightly to reflect Ryerson's resources.

 

Comparison Chart

 

 

Zotero

  • Free and open source
  • Grab citations as you browse using Firefox, Chrome, orSafari plugin
  • Backup and sync on multiple devices via online account
  • Plugins for Word & LibreOffice
  • Third party mobile apps available

Create account

Download

Help guide

 

 

Mendeley

 

  • Free for everyone
  • Desktop interface for Windows, Mac, or Linux, and iOS app
  • Backup and sync on multiple devices via online account
  • Save and annotate PDFs

Create account

Download

Help guide

 

EndNote Web

 

  • Free web version
  • Plugin available for IE & Firefox
  • Plugin available for Word
  • Well integrated with Web of Science, but can be used with all databases

 Create an Account

Help guide

 

          

... and more!

Adapted from University of Toronto Libraries Citation Management 

Why we Cite

Information has Value!

Watch one of these create videos why we cite from  the University of North Carolina and North Carolina State University 

Why We Cite

From The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Citation: A (very) Brief Introduction  

From North Carolina State University

Image of Video for Why we Cite - click on image Citation Video from NCSU


Here's a break down of why we cite?

  • To attribute words and ideas to their original source – simply giving credit where credit is due.

  • To provide your readers with a kind of “map”of what you have been reading – to help your readers understand what has influenced your thinking.

  • To add weight and credibility to your paper –to demonstrate that you are engaged in the relevant research material

  • To provide an easy way for your readers to get access to the source material.

  • To situate yourself in an academic community with shared conventions.

  • To avoid plagiarism.